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Synthetic Biology – A New Paradigm in the Biotechnology Revolution

Dr. Shanthu Shantharam

Designed and custom-made living cells, biological molecules, and organisms are causing lots of excitement in the field of modern biology. After genetic engineering and transgenic organisms or Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), “synthetic biology” is touted to be the next frontier in the field of new biology that is expected to revolutionize the future of life forms.
Gene Use Restriction Technologies
Prof. C. Kameswara Rao

Gene Use Restriction Technologies (GURTs) are a group of tools to regulate gene expression, in different ways.  The concept is not new and there have been many conventional means to alter gene expression such as addition or deletion of genes, induced gene mutations, induced polyploidy, experimental hybridization and somatic hybridization.
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Dr. Shanthu Shantharam

“Biosafety”, a term widely used in the context of modern day Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) include factors related to the genetic stability, environmental, and food safety of organisms that have produced using modern recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology. A variety of scientific approaches are used to assess their genetic stability, reproductive ability, biochemical, morphological, physiological changes, their impacts on target and non-target organisms, and the surrounding environment in general.
IPR issues in Biotechnology
Ms. Bindu Sharma

Biotechnology is a popular term for the generic technology of the 21st century. Although it has been utilized for centuries in traditional production processes, modern biotechnology is only about 50 years old, and in the last decades it has witnessed tremendous developments. Since R & D in biotechnology is extremely time consuming and requires huge investment, granting Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) is an effective tool to protect biotechnology inventions. There are however, no internationally accepted guidelines for the management of IPR, and a wide range of opinions exists regarding the utility of IPR in the area of biotechnology.
Dr. T.M. Manjunath

India made its long-awaited entry into commercial agricultural biotechnology in March 2002 with the approval of three Bt-cotton hybrids for commercial cultivation. The Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC), Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India granted the approval, at its 32nd meeting held in New Delhi.
Mr. M. N. Venkatesh

Nanobiotechnology is that branch of nanotechnology that deals with biological and biochemical applications or uses. Nanobiotechnology often studies existing elements of living organisms and nature to fabricate new nano-devices. . Generally, nanobiotechnology refers to the use of nanotechnology to further the goals of biotechnology.
Biofuel – Potential Future Crop of Farmers
Dr. A.K. Shyam

Oil, which served as the major driving energy source in the world is fast depleting forcing human kind to look for an equally, if not more competitive alternate source to sustain the demanding need. Bio-fuels and hydrogen have attracted the attention as the fastest growing programs in energy efficiency and renewable energy programs. There have been efforts in developing and advancing technology for biomass energy application such as bio-fuels, biomass power for electricity and bio-products that could replace petroleum based fuels.
Biotechnology and Bioethics
Prof. S.B.Sullia

Bioethics deals with morals and codes of conduct in the human society, in areas of biosciences and medical and food sciences, based on past cultural, religious and contemporary societal values. Modern biotechnology enables us to alter or modify any living organism’s behavior. The amazing power of this technology is the source of certain ethical concerns or issues. Largely, bioethical issues or concerns are local or regional and some are universal in nature. The social, cultural and religious background of that society heavily influences ethical behavior, conduct, or values in any society.